O**utput per effective worker does not necessarily grow at the rate of population growth.**

Instead, output per worker (Y/N) is included by technological progress and capital investment (savings). Mathematically:

**Y/N = f(K/N)**

Thus, Y (output) per worker (N) is a function of capital (K) per worker (N), with technological progress being an exogenous force that increases labour efficiency (L, maintained in the equation as a constant), or productivity. Beyond technological progress, increasing capital per worker directly increases output per worker.

So, if the population grows *without* a corresponding increase in technological progress or capital per worker, then **output per worker may stagnate or decline.**

Thus, capital and technology are critical to prevent diminishing returns from an increasing population and population growth is not a formulaic predictor of output per worker.

Hope that helps, and leave any questions in the comments! **Check out my other articles on economics ****here**** (useful for studying, or just learning).**